"when the first european settlers arrived in what is now the united states, the continent was covered by an estimated 3.2 million square kilometers of forest. in just 500 years, all but 220,000 square kilmoeters have been cleared." — edward goldsmith 

images by markley boyer from eric w. sanderson’s mannahatta: a natural history, showing how manhattan — or what the lenape called mannahatta, meaning the island of many hills in their algonquin language — would have looked like prior to european contact.

(not so fun history fact: the word boss comes from the dutch word for master, baas, which was used by slaves and indentured servants who arrived in new york’s ports when the city, having been founded by the dutch, was called new amsterdam.)